Tag Archives: PowerShell

Connect-PnPOnline Interactive with Client App Id

Scenario

You use PnP.PowerShell and you need to connect to SharePoint Online via Connect-PnPOnline interactively (on behalf of a user).

You do not have tenant admin permissions or any tenant-level admin permissions (SharePoint, Teams, Exchange etc. ). But you can register an Azure App with delegated permissions.

Solution

  • register an Azure App
  • authentication blade: add platform – “Mobile and Desktop app”
    add “http://localhost”
  • API permissions blade: add delegated permissions you need
    (refer to specific API you’ll use)
  • use the following code
$orgName = "yourTenant"
$adminUrl = "https://$orgName-admin.sharepoint.com"
$appId = "" # Client Id

$connection = Connect-PnPOnline -ClientId $AppId -Url $adminUrl -Interactive -ReturnConnection # -ForceAuthentication
$connection


Sometimes interactive window Pops up and disappears so you never have a chance to enter your admin id because you already authenticated (single-sigh-on) with your user Id. To ensure Connect-PnPOnline asks your credentials – use ” -ForceAuthentication”

Read access: Read items that were created by the user via PowerShell

Scenario:

You have a list in SharePoint Online. You want list items be visible to specific users only.
You want to leverage Item-Level Permissions under List Advanced settings: “Read access: Read items that were created by the user”. But the problem is it was not users who created items. E.g. the list was imported from excel file or created programmatically or migrated.

Solution:

PnP.PowerShell helps. Using “Set-PnPListItem”, you can re-write “Author” field in the list item.

Set-PnPListItem -List "Test" -Identity 1 -Values @{"Author"="testuser@domain.com"}

And, of course, use Item-Level Permissions under List Advanced settings: “Read access: Read items that were created by the user”:

Add users to “Site Visitors” group for read-only access:

… more TBP

Find sites shared with Everyone in SPO

There is a know problem in SharePoint – it’s complicated permissions system. As a result, many sites are overshared (overexposed) and site owners/administrators even do not know – who has access to their sites…

The most concern is sites shared with “Everyone”, “Everyone except external users” and “All users”. How do we find sites shared with “Everyone” in a large Microsoft 365 tenant?

Approach #1 (Brute force)

We can get full permissions report at tenant level (or permissions provided to “Everyone”). There are 3-rd party tools (e.g. ShareGate, SysKit, AvePoint, Metalogix etc.), or you can run PowerShell script…

Sounds easy? Well, if you have 1000 sites – probably yes. But if your environment 10K+ sites – it will take forever. Permission report might run hours for an average site with site/subsite, list/library and list item details level.

We need report detailed up to every item level deep, as even one file with sensitive info shared with everyone can cause security issue.

So, if this approach is not working – what’s working?

Approach #2 (Search)

Clever idea: why do we have to iterate through all the tenant documents/items if all the content is already crawled by search? Can we just use search to get files shared with Everyone? Sure!

Check this and this articles. Can we get results programmatically (e.g. with PowerShell)? Can we use Microsoft Graph search API? Sure.
Check this article “How to search against SharePoint Online Content with Microsoft Graph search API with PowerShell”.

But! We have two problems here.

Search Problem #1. The problem is the same as in “brute force”. Search returns so many results – it’ll take weeks to get all of them. (There are team sites “legally” shared with everyone, public Office 365 group based sites, communication sites… ).

Search Problem #2. Even whet we get all search results – we do not know – what is the exact Url of the resource shared with all users. So we will need to build list of sites based on the search results – ant then still need to run permissions report against these sites.

Approach # 3 Hybrid

The idea: why do we need to get all search result if even one result from the site would be enough to add the site to the list of sites require permission report.

So, consider (imho, the best) approach.

  1. You get list of sites in tenant. Here you can refine the list excluding, e.g. sites connected to public teams or known communication sites… Finally wou’ll have a list of sites you want to check – if there are resources shared with “Everyone…”
  2. You run search against each site in the loop (e.g. consider KQL option “Site: https://yourTenant,SharePoint.com/sites/YourSite”. Once even one result fount for the site – add the site to the “Open Sites” list

With this approach you will get list of sites shared with “Everyone…” in a coule of minutes.

The Next step would be “How to let site owners know what are resources shared with Everyone… on their sites”.

References

Authenticate to Microsoft Graph from PowerShell Interactively

Scenario

You are a developer or power user in a company with Microsoft 365 tenant.
You need to connect to Microsoft Graph and then call Microsoft Graph API to consume some MS Graph resources on behalf of authenticated user programmatically with PowerShell – e.g. add/remove documents or list items, search for sites or documents content etc. – whatever available with Graph API.

You do not have tenant admin permissions or any tenant-level admin permissions (SharePoint, Teams, Exchange etc. ). But you can register an Azure App and request tenant admin consent.

Solution

  • register an Azure App
  • under authentication blade – add platform – “Mobile and Desktop app”
    add “http://localhost” (and select …/nativeclient Url ?)
  • under API permissions blade – add delegated permissions you need
    (refer to specific API you’ll use)
  • install MSAL.PS PowerShell module
  • use the following code to get graph access token and call graph API
$AppId = ""
$TenantId = ""
$connectionDetails = @{
    'TenantId'    = $AppId
    'ClientId'    = $TenantId
    'Interactive' = $true
}

$token = Get-MsalToken @connectionDetails
# or 
$token = Get-MsalToken -TenantId $TenantId -ClientId $appId -Interactive 

$Headers = @{
    'Authorization' = "bearer $($token.AccessToken)"
}

Invoke-RestMethod -Uri 'https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/me' -Headers $Headers

You can find the code sample here: https://github.com/VladilenK/

Did not work:

Az PowerShell module did not work for me:

Connect-AzAccount -Tenant ""
$azAccessToken = Get-AzAccessToken -Resource "https://graph.microsoft.com" 

$Headers = @{
  'Authorization' = "$($azAccessToken.Type) $($azAccessToken.Token)"
}

Invoke-RestMethod -Uri 'https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/me' -Headers $Headers

As I understand we need somehow let Azure know API permissions we want (e.g. via app registerd)…

PnP did not work for me too:

$url = "https://orgname.sharepoint.com"
Connect-PnPOnline -ClientId "" -Url $url -Interactive 
$pnpToken = Get-PnPGraphAccessToken 
$Headers = @{
    'Authorization' = "bearer $($pnpToken)"
}
Invoke-RestMethod -Uri 'https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/me' -Headers $Headers

# did not work as well:
$pnpToken = Get-PnPAppAuthAccessToken
$pnpToken = Get-PnPAccessToken 

the error message was (maybe I missed something – please let me know):

“code”: “InvalidAuthenticationToken”, “message”: “Access token validation failure. Invalid audience.”

References

PnP.PowerShell Release 1.3.0

Great news:

Added -Interactive login option to Connect-PnPOnline which is similar to -UseWebLogin but without the limitations of the latter. The -UseWebLogin is using cookie based authentication towards SharePoint and cannot access Graph tokens. Using -Interactive we use Azure AD Authentication and as a result we are able to acquire Graph tokens.

more changes: https://github.com/pnp/powershell/releases/tag/1.3.0

Connect-PnPOnline with a certificate stored in Azure Key Vault

Scenario

You need to run some PnP PowerShell code unattended (daemon app, with no user interaction) against SharePoint and/or Azure AD. PnP require authentication with a certificate. You want certificate stored securely in Azure Key Vault.

Solution

  • create a self-signed certificate
  • register an application in Azure
  • add API application permissions to the app
  • upload the certificate to the app
  • create an Azure Key Vault
  • provide permissions to the Key Vault for the user
  • run Connect-AzAccount
  • upload certificate to the Key Vault manually (with GUI)

now you can run this code and it will not ask you to login:

# set parameters:
$orgName = "orgname" 
$clientID = "" # Client ID
$VaultName = "" # Azure Key Vault Name
$certName = "" # Certificate Name as in Azure Key Vault
$tenant = "$orgName.onmicrosoft.com"
$adminUrl = "https://$orgName-admin.sharepoint.com"
# run the following
$secretSecureString = Get-AzKeyVaultSecret -VaultName $vaultName -Name $certName 
$secretPlainText = ConvertFrom-SecureString -AsPlainText -SecureString $secretSecureString.SecretValue
Connect-PnPOnline -Url $adminUrl -ClientId $clientID -CertificateBase64Encoded $secretPlainText -Tenant $tenant 

The same PowerShell code in GitHub: https://github.com/VladilenK/PowerShell/blob/main/PnP/Connect-PnPOnline-with-certificate.ps1

References:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/az.keyvault/get-azkeyvaultcertificate?view=azps-5.3.0

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/43837362/keyvault-generated-certificate-with-exportable-private-key

Yammer API with PowerShell: Private groups and messages

As an Office 365 administrator, I would like to get some reports on Yammer with PowerShell. How it’s done?

Patrick Lamber wrote a good article here: “Access the Yammer REST API through PowerShell“. The only I would add (important!) is:

By default, even with a Verified Admin token, you do not have access to private messages and private groups content.
To get private stuff, you need select “Private Content Mode” under Yammer Admin Center -> Content and Security -> Content Mode:

Check Microsoft: “Monitor private content in Yammer” and
Yammer: “Verified Admin Private Content Mode

If you do not have “Private Content Mode” set up, you might see some weird “Invoke-WebRequest” errors like:

VSCode, PowerShell, .Net and GitHub basics

Dotnet (.net core, .net 5) useful commands:

dotnet --info
dotnet new sln
dotnet new webapi -o API
dotnet sln add APi
dotnet watch run
dotnet dev-certs https --trust
dotnet new gitignore

Visual Studio Code setup:

Some useful plug-ins:

  • PowerShell from Microsoft
  • GitHub pull requests and issues from GitHub
  • C# from Microsoft
    (+ ^P assets)
  • C# Extensions from JosKreativ
  • Material Icon Theme from Philipp Kief
  • Bracket Pair Colorizer 2

VS Code basic configuration:
– AutoSave
– Font Size
– Hide folders: Settings->Exclude “**/obj” “**/bin”
– Compact folders: Settings->”Compact folders”
– appsettings.Development.json: “Microsoft”: “Warning” -> “Microsoft”: “Information”
– launchSettings.json:
“launchBrowser”: true/false,
“launchUrl”

Git basic commands:

  • git init
  • create gitignore (dotnet new gitignore)
  • add appsettings.json to gitignore
  • [create git repo]
  • git commit -m “first commit”
  • git branch -M main
  • git remote add origin https://github.com/orgName/AppName.git
  • git push -u origin main


Long-running PowerShell Office 365 reports

(WIP)

PowerShell is our best friend when it comes to ad-hoc and/or scheduled reports in Microsoft 365. PnP team is doing great job providing more and more functionality with PnP PowerShell module for Office 365 SharePoint and Teams.

Small and medium business organizations are mostly good, but for large companies it might be a problem due to just huge amount of data stored in SharePoint. PowerShell reports on all users or all sites might run days… which is probably OK if you run this report once, but totally not acceptable if you need this report e.g. daily/weekly or on-demand.

How can we make heavy PowerShell scripts run faster?

Of course, you start with logic (algorithm) and leveraging full PowerShell functionality (e.g. PowerShell 7 parallelism or PnP batching).

(examples)

What if you did everything, but it still takes too long? You need something like brute force – the closer your code runs to your tenant – the better.
What are the option?
– Automation account runbook (+workflow)
– Azure Function Apps
– Azure VM in the region closest to your Tenant

Automation account runbook (+workflow)

Seemed like a good option, but not something Microsoft promotes. Even opposite – automation accounts support only PowerShell 5 (not 7), no plug-ins for VS Code and recently there were messages on some retirement or smth.

Meantime, I tested it – and did not find any significant increasing in speed. In a nutshell, what is behind this service? Same windows machines running somewhere in Azure .

TBC

References
PnP PowerShell

SharePoint PnP roadmap

Good news!
On Sep, 18 during the SIG community call, PnP Team shared their plans on PnP Sites Core library and PnP Core SDK.
“PnP Sites Core v4” library and “PnP Core SDK v1” with .net core support (.net Standard 2.0) – expected in December 2020!

PnP PowerShell v4 for SPO library built for .Net Standard 2.0 / PowerShell 7 will be released in Dec 2020 as well.