Microsoft recently (Oct 2023) announced Microsoft Graph command-line interface (CLI) tool – mgc. Microsoft: “The Microsoft Graph PowerShell command-line interface (CLI) acts as an API wrapper for the Microsoft Graph APIs, exposing the entire API set for use from the command line”. Example:
mgc users list --filter "displayName eq 'John Smith'"
Meantime there is a Microsoft Graph PowerShell SDK (PowerShell module Microsoft.Graph ) since 2020. Example:
Get-MgUser -Filter "displayName eq 'John Smith'"
So, what is the difference? Why Microsoft provides two similar tools? What are the use case scenarios, functionality and scope of each one?
how to connect to SharePoint list from Azure Data factory and
how to deal with connection error code 23201 “Failed to get metadata of odata service, please check if service url and credential is correct and your application has permission to the resource“
You are configuring Azure Data Factory pipeline. You want to connect to SharePoint List as a data source.
To establish connection to SharePoint site you need to provide Site Url, tenant Id, service principal Id and service principal key:
Service principal here could be
SharePoint app-only service principal registered at SharePoint site
Azure registered app
In both cases you get “service principal Id” – which is App Id or Client Id and “service principal key” which is app secret (client secret).
Note: in Sep 2023 Microsoft implemented update to all Microsoft 365 tenants. According to the update, by default only tenant administrators can create or update ACS service principal by default. If site collection admin starting from Oct 2023 can register SharePoint app-only spn via appregnew.aspx or provide ACS-based permissions via appinv.aspx – that means tenant admins switched this back.
So, if registering a new SharePoint app-only service principal is still available for your tenant – you can get service principal Id and key from SharePoint via appregnew and/or provide ACS-based permissions via appinv – and there should be no problem connecting to SPO list from ADF.
If a site collection administrator or owner tries to register app in SharePoint with appregnew.aspx or provide permissions to the app with appinv.aspx – and he/she gets: Your SharePoint tenant admin doesn’t allow site collection admins to create (update) app permissions. Please contact your SharePoint administrator:
that means registering service principal in SharePoint is disabled. In this case Microsoft recommend using Azure application registration – with MS Graph API Sites.Selected and SharePoint Sites.Selected API permissions configured, consented by tenant admin and with access to specific SharePoint site provided by SharePoint admins (refer to this article for more details).
If you obtained service principal Id and key as Azure Registered App – connection to SharePoint site from Azure Data Factory does not always works. When you configure connection and click test – you might get an error:
Failed to get metadata of odata service, please check if service url and credential is correct and your application has permission to the resource. Expected status code: 200, actual status code: BadRequest, response is :
<p class="heading1">Request Error</p>
<p>The server encountered an error processing the request. See server logs for more details.</p>
So the issue above is a combination of two controversial circumstances:
Microsoft discourages using SharePoint app-only service principals and disabled ability for site owners to register SharePoint app-only service principals and provide ACS-based permissions in favor of Azure Registerd Apps with Sites.Selected based permissions.
Azure Data Factory still require ACS-based permissions
If Microsoft disabled ability for site owners to to provide ACS-based permissions for the app – that does not mean it is fully disabled. It turns out – SharePoint admins are still able to register SharePoint app-only principals and provide ACS-based permissions.
The recommended steps are:
register Application in Azure (not in SharePoint) to get App (client) Id this could be done by user from Azure App Registrations (or, if this ability is disabled by tenant admin – there must be a way for users to request an application registered in Azure)
provide to this App Id ACS-based permissions at the target SharePoint site via appinv.aspx – this is done by a person who got at the same time two roles
SharePoint admin role enabled and
The specific site collection administrator permissions
Actually, the only you need is to provide any ACS-based access for the application. Even to another site, web or list. You can also remove this just provided ACS-based access. It seems like the moment you click “Trust” when you provide access via AppInv.aspx – something is triggered in Microsoft Identity Management token issuing mechanics so Azure Data factory connection starts working (assuming Sites.Selected access was provides).
Surely connection will work if you provide only ACS-based permissions (with no Sites.Selected permissions), but this is what we all want to avoid by any means.
More fun! Connection to entire site will start working even if you provide SharePoint app-only (ACS-based) permissions to some specific list. Though later, when you try to ingest data – you will be able to ingest only this list data.
Environment this is tested:
Powershell module used to enable/disable 16.0.24120.12000 Microsoft.Online.SharePoint.PowerShell
Microsoft implemented Sites.Selected API permissions for Azure registered apps in 2021-2022 as a preferred way to access specific SharePoint site with application credentials. Microsoft recommend using Azure registered apps instead of SharePoint App-Only service principals and “softly” push developers toward Azure registered apps. Microsoft recently (Aug-Sep 2023) implemented an update and pushed it to all existing Microsoft 365 tenants – so that ability for site admins to register service principals at sites is turned off by default.
So starting Aug-Sep 2023 site owners/admins cannot register and provide ACS-based permissions for apps to their SharePoint sites.
There is a new feature published at Microsoft roadmap site:
Microsoft 365 admin center: Manage ownerless Microsoft 365 groups and teams
Teams, Outlook groups, Team Sites etc. powered by Microsoft 365 Groups supports two roles: members and owners. Members can collaborate with others in the group through files, emails, messages etc. Owners manage the group membership and monitor content and conversations. When employees leave an organization or switch projects internally, it results in their existing user accounts getting deleted. If such employees were group owners, keeping track of their groups becomes critical to ensure accountability within the organization. We have introduced a new ownership governance policy to help automate the management of ownerless groups by requesting active members to become owners of the group. Admins can define who is eligible for these notifications and configure what notifications and how often these notifications are sent to active group members. Users, who are members of the ownerless groups can simply accept or decline request via the actionable email message.
Feature ID: 180749
Added to roadmap: 10/10/2023
Last modified: 10/10/2023
Product(s): Microsoft 365 Admin Center
Cloud instance(s): GCC
Release phase(s): General Availability
But based on the feature description – all looks exactly as what we already have for years as “Microsoft 365 ownerless groups policy” which you can configure under Microsoft 365 Admin Center -> Settings -> Org settings -> Microsoft 365 groups
What if you need to update thousands of m365 groups? E.g. membership – to add a group owner or member.
In my case, it was Microsoft 365 ownerless groups policy… Details are here but in short, I needed to update ownership for 10,000 m365 groups adding 10 accounts to group owners, 1,000 groups per account.
And I figured out for myself that the fastest way is to use Microsoft Graph API with PowerShell parallel trick. Here is the PowerShell code:
You administer Microsoft 365 SharePoint Online. Part of your daily activities is providing Microsoft Graph and SharePoint Sites.Selected API permissions to other users (developers).
In Aug/Sep 2023 Microsoft pushed an update that prevents site collection admins to create or update an Azure Access Control (ACS) principal (that was the way most of developers used to get Client Id and Client secret to access SharePoint site). So your users are probably getting something like Your SharePoint tenant admin doesn’t allow site collection admins to create or update an Azure Access Control (ACS) principal message attempting to create or update SharePoint App-only principal at AppRegNew.aspx or AppInv.aspx pages. Here are more details on the issue.
Microsoft and MVPs shared some technique how to provide Sites.Selected API permissions, but dealing with scripts manually, elevating individual permissions every time you need to run the script – it all takes time and not very efficient. More and more devs are reaching you on the app. So you want to automate this process.
My way to automate it includes:
SharePoint list as a frontend here you can accept intake requests, organize approval workflow and display automation results
Azure Function App as a backend here will be your PowerShell script hosted that runs on scheduled basis and takes care of actual permissions provisioning
High-level, getting application permissions to some specific SharePoint site is a two-step process:
get application registration in Azure and properly configure it
get permissions for this application to a specific SharePoint site
For the first step – check this and this articles. I’ll focus on the second step below.
You can provide Sites.Selected permissions for the app to a site with
I will be using second one one. Also PnP.PowerShell will be used to get access to SharePoint intake site and read/update requests from SharePoint list and so on.
Azure App Registration
I registered an admin Application in Azure – “SharePoint Automation App”, added Graph Sites.FullControl.All and SharePoint Sites.FullControl.All permissions, then added Microsoft Graph Directory.Read.All permissions and got tenant admin consent:
I generated a self-signed certificate and added it to the app:
This app will be used to call provide permissions, and to connect to the SharePoint front-end.
Users will register their applications in Azure, add Graph Sites.Selected and SharePoint Sites.Selected permissions, got tenant admin consent, then request permissions to the specific site by creating an intake request – new list item.
Front-End SharePoint Site
I created a SharePoint site for automation. This site will play a front-end role for users. I created a list “Sites.Selected” and updated list columns so I have the following fields:
Target Site Url
In real-world (Prod) – You can (should) also implement approval workflow as you’d provide permissions for the application to the site only with this site owner approval. The PowerShell code behind should also validate site owner’s consent with app access to site. But for the sake of simplicity I’ll skip this in my demo.
Azure Function App
I created an Azure Function App with the following parameters: – Runtime stack: PowerShell Core – Version: 7.2. – OS: Windows – Hosting plan: Consumption
And then PowerShell timer-triggered function in Visual Studio Code.
Function requirements.psd1 (it takes a few hours for Azure to install modules; while modules are installing – you might see “[Warning] The first managed dependency download is in progress, function execution will continue when it’s done. Depending on the content of requirements.psd1, this can take a few minutes. Subsequent function executions will not block and updates will be performed in the background.”):
'Az' = '10.*'
'PnP.PowerShell' = '2.*'
Azure Az module to access other Azure resources. PnP.PowerShell module will be used to access SharePoint.
I will keep my admin Azure registered app in a key vault, so need somehow to let the key vault know that this specific app can access this specific credentials. So I enabled system assigned managed Identity for the Function App:
MS: “This resource is registered with Azure Active Directory. The managed identity can be configured to allow access to other resources…”. I’m going to use an object (principal) Id of this function to grant access to keyvault.
Azure key vault
Surely we do not hard-code app secrets. So we need a key vault o store app credentials.
I created a key vault under the same resource group in Azure and named it “SharePointAutomationDemo”. Then I added a roles assignment – “Key Vault Secret User” and “Key vault Reader” to the Function App via it’s managed identity:
I also assigned “Key Vault Administrator” role to the user (developer) who will add certificates/secrets to this key vault and develop Azure function code.
Any organization has it’s own data lifecycle policy and for information stored in SharePoint there must be a retention period… let say 5 years. So your files modified more than 5 years ago are going to be deleted and you will not even notice it.
What if you want to know – which documents in your OneDrive or SharePoint site is older than some specific date – here are some options to find out.
Search with query parameters (GUI)
At any level of your site hierarchy – root level, library, folder etc. – you can refine your search results with, e.g. “LastModifiedTimeForRetention<2021-01-01” if you want to get all documents older than January 1st 2021.
In the screenshot below I use newer dates, but you got the idea:
If you need only Microsoft Word documents older than some specific date, you might use query: “*.docx LastModifiedTimeForRetention<2021-01-01”
If you need only Microsoft Word documents authored by some specific User and older than some specific date, you might use query: “*.docx author:Patti LastModifiedTimeForRetention<2021-01-01”
Search with Graph API
The same query you can use to search content with Microsoft Graph API. Here is the code example:
So far some findings I came up with during last Microsoft forms troubleshooting… I’ll keep them here just as a reminder for myself or it might help you to troubleshoot Microsoft forms.
You know, a user can create a form. Then user can share it. There are two kind of links –
to edit/view/export results
Link to respond is kind of : https://forms.office.com/Pages/ResponsePage.aspx?id=FHPcfQGf1UWwEnFmW7HFRMgvShgV5J1Phpi7J1M_UoVUOUI1TzNQUEdWOTAzVVdRUVYzVVg4MlhZNC4u or short one: https://forms.office.com/r/kDKaHWauj7
Link “to collaborate” -e.g. with the link a person can edit and view results – is created under … “Create or duplicate”, and could be for anyone, for all people in org, and for specific people in org
if the link looks like "https://forms.office.com/Pages/DesignPageV2.aspx?subpage=design&FormId=<FormId>" then it’s for specific people in org
if the link looks the same but also contains "&Token=e3cd16ccf8034a3e868c68747e1f9584" then it’s for anyone with work or school account or for anyone in the organization
The one with the “edit” link can edit the form (including questions, answers options, and form visibility , view responses, delete responses, create a “summary link”, create a duplicate link, and export responses to excel (“Open in Excel” button). But cannot change collaboration options.
When user complete the form (after submit button), there is an option “Save my response” – if so – user will see this for with only one (his/her) response under forms app.
Collaborator is not seeing the form he/she has access to until follow the link.
Form owner can move the form to a group. If so:
people who are group members (not only owners) will see this form under forms app – under specific group
form id will be changed, i.e. old links will stop working group-owned form id seemed to me little longer – 88 characters vs 80 for individual-owned forms and has no dashes.
The trick Tomasz Szypula @toszypul shared here (also citing the trick below) on how to find form owner having just “collaboration” link works like a charm! Even for deleted owner`s IDs.
If the form is owned by group – the link would be similar, but with “/group/<groupId>” instead of “/user/<UserId>” . E.g. here: https://forms.office.com/formapi/api/7ddc7314-9f01-45d5-b012-71665bb1c544/groups/65714e55-87f4-49c3-b790-fc75d7349c8a/light/...
you can see “65714e55-87f4-49c3-b790-fc75d7349c8a” which is group Id.
Deleting user who owns forms
When a form owner user account is deleted from AAD… tbp…
Deleting a group that owns forms
When a form owner group is deleted from AAD… tbp…
Audit log events
ListForms – Listed forms – viewed forms home page with list of forms
ViewForm – Viewed Form –
ViewRuntimeForm – Viewed response page
ViewResponses- Viewed responses
CreateResponse – Created response
ExportForm – Exported form – “export to excel” – file saved to the local machine (form owner=user)
ConnectToExcelWorkbook – Connected To Excel Workbook – “export to excel” – file saved to the teams SharePoint site under Documents (form owner = group)
toszypul replied to Jason_B1025
Jan 03 2022 03:17 AM - edited Jan 03 2022 03:18 AM
@Jason_B1025 I was able to get the ID of the user with a bit of a hack. Here are sample steps:
-Access the form using this designer direct URL https://forms.office.com/Pages/DesignPage.aspx?origin=shell#FormId=<YourFormID>
-Inspect the network traces. You will find a request similar to this
-The ID in bold is the AAD ID of the user
-Use Graph Explorer - Microsoft Graph to run this request to retrieve the username and email address of the owner https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/users/<UserID>
How do I know – is it a person-owned or group-owned form
Let say you got a claim that “we were able to work with the form, and now it is gone”, and the only you have is the “collaborators” link to the form – so you can edit form, view responses etc. but nobody knows who created that form… So how to determine who owns the form – person or group and what person/group.
It is a form owned by person if
form id is 80 characters length
on “Export to Excel” button – it saves/downloads excel file to the file system
“Export to Excel” button generates ExportForm – “Exported form” event in the audit log